Research and innovation partnerships have been introduced into the European R&I landscape following the Lisbon strategy (2000) with the aim to develop the European Research Area (ERA) and to combine national and European R&I funding and activities. Public-Public Partnerships (P2P) and Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) are the main types of partnerships and were designed to overcome the fragmentation in the R&I landscape, to avoid duplication of efforts, to address economic crisis, competitiveness and innovation. Public-Public Partnerships (P2P) comprise Joint Programming Initiatives (JPIs), Art. 185 initiatives, ERA-NETs Cofunds, and European Joint Programmes (EJPs). P2Ps play an increasing role at the cutting edge of European and national research activities (1).
ERA-NET Cofunds under Horizon 2020 merge the former ERA-NET and ERA-NET Plus schemes into a single financial instrument with the central compulsory element of implementing one substantial call, based on national funding with top-up funding from the European Commission, and additional activities (e.g. additional calls, networking activities etc.). This aims to increase substantially the share of funding that Member States dedicate jointly to challenge driven research and innovation agendas (2). The ERA-NET funding scheme brings together programme owners (e.g. ministries) and programme managers (funding agencies and project management organisations) that manage and implement national and regional programmes. Researchers, research organisations, universities and enterprises can apply to the ERA-NETs' joint calls (3). Under the next framework programme Horizon Europe, a new approach with regard to ERA-NETs and partnerships is envisaged (4).
Currently more than 70 ERA-NETs are existing. FNR is actively involved in development and innovation activities in the field of renewable resources/bioenergy and participates in a number of ERA-Net activities described below.